About the teudat lochem, I really can't remember -- sorry. You'll have to ask around, and for a while. You don't have to find this office in order to get the card, just if you want it faster. Otherwise, you might end up receiving it after your choger is no longer valid anyway, and then you don't have the week or two of riding around on buses for free out of uniform. But I didn't and I survived.
As for the money -- you get two bonuses upon leaving the army. One is a cash bonus payable upon honorable discharged based on time in service and type of service. Combat gets the most, combat support second, and whatever is furthest from combat gets the smallest amount. I think it was on the order of a couple thousand shekels back in 2005 when I got it based on my 14.5 months in service in a combat unit.
The second bonus is a larger sum that is set aside for you upon discharge, but not paid out directly. You can either wait five years and receive it in cash, or you can withdraw parts of it for one or a combination of three purposes:
1. Education in Israel
2. Opening a business in Israel
3. Getting married in Israel
Since I left Israel after finishing my service, I couldn't use it for any of those purposes. Well, the distant future eventually rolled around and I was in Israel for an army buddy's wedding at the end of the 5 years. I went to the bank branch where I had had an account during my time in Israel with my passport (which had the original A2 visa in it with my mispar zehut) and the certificate of honorable discharge (the one you get from kzin ha'ir). It will still take some wrangling as it is Israel, but you should get it eventually. You may need to point out that although you don't have an actual teudat zehut as an Israeli citizen does, you have a mispar zehut on an official document. You will also need to point out that the mispar zehut written on your A2 visa is in your passport, a document recognized by Israel, and matches the one on the certificate of honorable discharge. The remaining sum is then deposited in your bank account. If you closed your account when you left the country, they will open one for you and can wire the cash to a foreign account if you like.
But I guess that's all pretty far away for you. Hope this helps.
Mahal Nahal March '04 draft