Welcome to the forum!
Since your father is Jewish, you are eligible for the program. You are also eligible to make aliyah under the Law of Return. Had you been born Jewish and converted to Christianity, that may have been another matter.
Making aliyah makes it much easier to get into the unit you want. It also does indeed allow for much greater assistance. There is financial assistance you can receive as an oleh chadash, for example. You can find a wealth of information online regarding what those specific benefits are. Here is one such site:
As for Hebrew, you do not need any in order to be sent to the ulpan -- it's there to teach you Hebrew. However, the more Hebrew you know before coming to Israel, the better.
Regarding your color blindness, I unfortunately cannot help you with that question.